Ovariohysterectomy or spaying,involves ligation of the ovarian veins & arteries and of the distal body of uterus & removal of uterus,fallopian tubes and ovaries as a unit.
Benefits of prophylactic ovariohysterectomy:
The three most common reasons for carrying out prophylactic OVH are prevention of misalliance,mammary tumours & pyometra.There are,however,even more reasons.Bitches on heat are often more reactive than they would be during anoestrus & this could lead to squabbles between dogs in the household.Bitches in heat can also cause serious fights between intact males through their mere presence in the neighbourhood.Less common physical problems associated with oestrogen include vaginal prolapse & Nymphomania and these are also prevented through removing the ovaries,the main source of oestrogen.
The link between mammary carcinoma and reproductive hormones is probably the most compelling reason for advising spaying in bitches.Most canine mammary carcinomas are oestrogen responsive and grow better when this hormone is circulating in the body.As a result,bitches sterilized before their first heat only have a 0.05% chance of developing mammary carcinoma at any stage in their life.If they are sterilized after first oestrus cycle,the risk increases to 8%,if after two heat cycles,risk increases to 26%.
Approx. half of the canine mammary carcinomas are malignant.